What Are Target Costs in Cost Center Accounting and Why Should You Calculate Them?
- by Janet Salmon, Product Manager, SAP AG
- March 15, 2004
Many reports that monitor cost center performance are incomplete because they account for the planned output rather than the actual output of the cost center. The author demonstrates how to use adjusted costs called target costs. Calculating target costs will provide you with a report that more accurately reflects the performance of your cost centers.
Ask most people to define Cost Center Accounting (CO-OM-CCA) and they will tell you that it is the process of assigning expenses to cost centers and monitoring these figures over time. Ask them how they monitor cost center performance and these people will tell you that they compare the actual costs with the planned costs for the period and analyze the variance. They typically work with reports like the one shown in Figure 1, with a line-by-line explanation of the over/under absorption on the cost center. (For information on reports in Business Information Warehouse [BW], see the sidebar, "Analyzing Target Costs in Business Information Warehouse.")
Plan/actual comparison for cost center group (click on image for full- screen
However, while everyone is familiar with this sort of report, it has its limitations. To understand how their cost centers are performing, some companies go a step further and adjust their planned costs to reflect the actual output of the cost center. They then compare these adjusted costs — SAP calls them target costs — with their actual costs to calculate variances. This gives them a more accurate picture of how efficiently their cost centers have been working, because it accounts for variations in cost center output. Using five cost centers in a fictitious manufacturing company, I will show you why companies use target costs instead of planned costs to judge their cost centers' performance and what impact this business requirement has on their planning process.
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